• The Victorian Age

    The Victorian Age is in many ways the apex of European genteel civilization. Europeans understood that they dominated the world politically, economically, and socially, and that self-satisfaction with their culture hid many problems that laid just beneath the surface, excusing the abuses of their imperialistic ambitions and empires. After the failures of the Revolutions of 1848, Europe went through a hardening of thought.  Gone were the Romantic notions of unification through the ballot, in place came the drive for nationalism through aggression, war, and power. 

    Study Guide - Victorian Age
    This is the study guide for chapters 22 & 23.
    Important Links
    Wikipedia-Victorian Age
    This site provides a simple overview of the period.

    The Victorian Web: An Overview
    This site provides a good linkage to various topics of the Victorian age.

    Victorian Britain: 11 to 14 Years
    This site provides a series of links to various topics of the period.

    A simple definition of the term and links to nationalist events.
    The main builder of Germany.
    The rise of the German Empire radically changed the map of Europe.
    While Italy unified prior to Germany, its impact on the continent was not as dramatic.
    This video was created by Tom Lenihan, a Social Studies Teacher in Yorktown, Virginia.  It runs for about 5 minutes.
    The National Archives Learning Curve

    Victorian Music

         During the middle and later years of the nineteenth-century, a style of"light" music became popular with the European middle classes. By appealing to a less-refined, less-discriminating taste for melody,harmony and rhythm, many composers found their audiences in the music halls or on the dance floors: the racy can-can and galop enlivened the parodistic opera-bouffes of Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880); the Victorian sentiment, melody, and satirical humor of the operas of Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900); and in Vienna, the dance music of the Strauss family. Known as "the Waltz King" for his hundreds of waltzes, Johann Strauss, Jr. Strauss also composed a number of frothy Viennese operettas, the best of which is Die Fledermaus. was a violinist and orchestra leader who also wrote a great number of dances other than waltzes, such as polkas, galops, and quadrilles. Manyof Strauss’ melodies are instantaneously familiar the world over, such as the Tales from Vienna Woods, which you are listening to below. [From the Internet Public Library]