• The Reformation

    The Reformation of Christianity in Europe during the 16th century is a period of great intellectual and religious achievement.  Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ignatius Loyola battled for the true practice of Christianity, and this spiritual battle took on political, cultural,and artistic tones.

    This is the study guide for Chapter 13. 

    Important Links

      Wikipedia-Protestant Reformation
      A very good place to begin an investigation of the Protestant Reformation

      Wikipedia-Counter Reformation
      A good place to examine the Counter Reformation that responded to the criticisms of the Protestants.

      Desiderius Erasmus, 1466-1536
      Erasmus, a frequent critic of the Catholic Church, heavily criticized its activities in his "In Praise of Folly" listed here.

      Martin Luther's 95 Theses
      The English translation.

      John Calvin
      A very good background on this Reformation Reformer. It is interesting to compare him with Luther.

      The Life of Ignatius Loyola
      The founder of the Society of Jesus, more commonly known as the Jesuits, led the Catholic Counter-Reformation to combat the spread of Protestantism.

      Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
      1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy. He tried to unite Europe.

      The Elizabethan Spying Game

      This is a fun website that lets you crack the code that led to the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots by her sister, Queen Elizabeth.

      A Witch Hunt: Germany 1628

      This is a fun site in which you participate in a which hunt.

    Music of the Reformation

    "A Mighty Fortress is Our God" By Martin Luther

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" (German, Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott) is the best known of Martin Luther's hymns. Luther wrote the words and composed the melody sometime between 1527-1529.[1] It has been translated into English at least seventy times and also into many other languages.[1][2] The words are a paraphrase of Psalm 46.