• The Development of Nationalism,
    (1850 - 1870)

    Following the outbreak and crushing of the French Revolution, nationalism developed throughout Europe and Latin America.  In the process, reshaping the map of Europe, and setting the stage for World War One.

    Ideas like liberty, freedom, and self-determination were hot stuff in the late 18th century, as evidenced by our recent revolutionary videos. Although freedom was breaking out all over, many of the societies that were touting these ideas relied on slave labor. Few places in the world relied so heavily on slave labor as Saint-Domingue, France's most profitable colony. Slaves made up nearly 90% of Saint-Domingue's population, and in 1789 they couldn't help but hear about the revolution underway in France. All the talk of liberty, equality, and fraternity sounds pretty good to a person in bondage, and so the slaves rebelled. This led to not one but two revolutions, and ended up with France, the rebels, Britain, and Spain all fighting in the territory. Spoiler alert: the slaves won. So how did the slaves of what would become Haiti throw off the yoke of one of the world's great empires? John Green tells how they did it, and what it has meant in Haiti and in the rest of the world. 
    In which John Green talks about the many revolutions of Latin America in the 19th century. At the beginning of the 1800s, Latin America was firmly under the control of Spain and Portugal. The revolutionary zeal that had recently created the United States and had taken off Louis XVI's head in France arrived in South America, and a racially diverse group of people who felt more South American than European took over. John covers the soft revolution of Brazil, in which Prince Pedro boldly seized power from his father, but promised to give it back if King João ever returned to Brazil. He also covers the decidedly more violent revolutions in Mexico, Venezuela, and Argentina. Watch the video to see Simón Bolívar's dream of a United South America crushed, even as he manages to liberate a bunch of countries and get two currencies and about a thousand schools and parks named after him. 
    Important Links
    Wikipedia - Nationalism
    This provides a simple overview of the concept.

    Wikipedia - Otto von Bismarck
    Chancellor Bismarck  led the drive for German unification.

    Wikipedia - The German Empire
    The development of the German Empire radically changed Europe.

    Italian Unification
    Italian unification, while earlier than Germany, was not as much of an earthquake than Germany's unification.

    Marxists Internet Archive
    This site compiles many different sources of Marxist thought.

    Italian Unification Video
    This video was created by Tom Lenihan, a Social Studies Teacher in Yorktown, Virginia.  It runs for about 5 minutes.

    Music of the Nationalist Age
    Das Deutschlandlied ("The Song of Germany", also known as Das Lied der Deutschen, "The Song of the Germans") has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. Outside Germany it is sometimes known by the opening words and refrain of the first stanza, Deutschland über alles (Germany above all), but this has never been its title.

    The music was written by Joseph Haydn in 1797 as an anthem for the birthday of the Austrian Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1841 the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the lyrics of "Das Lied der Deutschen" to Haydn's melody, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time.

    Here are the lyrics.

    German lyrics Approximate translation
    First stanza

    Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,
    Über alles in der Welt,
    Wenn es stets zu Schutz und Trutze
    Brüderlich zusammenhält.
    Von der Maas bis an die Memel,
    Von der Etsch bis an den Belt,
     |: Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,
      Über alles in der Welt! :|

    Germany, Germany above everything,
    Above everything in the world,
    When, for protection and defence, it always
    takes a brotherly stand together.
    From the Meuse to the Neman,
    From the Adige to the Belt,
     |: Germany, Germany above everything,
      Above everything in the world. :|

    Second stanza

    Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue,
    Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang
    Sollen in der Welt behalten
    Ihren alten schönen Klang,
    Uns zu edler Tat begeistern
    Unser ganzes Leben lang.
     |: Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue,
      Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang! :|

    German women, German loyalty,
    German wine and German songs
    Shall retain in the world
    Their old beautiful Chime
    And inspire us to noble deeds
    During all of our life.
     |: German women, German loyalty,
      German wine and German song! :|

    Third stanza
    (Germany's National Anthem)

    Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit
    Für das deutsche Vaterland!
    Danach lasst uns alle streben
    Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand!
    Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit
    Sind des Glückes Unterpfand;
     |: Blüh' im Glanze dieses Glückes,
      Blühe, deutsches Vaterland. :|

    Unity and justice and freedom
    For the German fatherland!
    For these let us all strive
    Brotherly with heart and hand!
    Unity and justice and freedom
    Are the pledge of fortune;
     |: Flourish in this fortune's blessing,
      Flourish, German fatherland. :|