• The Classical Civilizations
    (600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.

    Built on the foundations of the River Valley Civilizations, the Classical Civilizations of Greece, Rome, Gupta, the Han, and the Maya set many of the cultural characteristics for their respective regions.

    Study Guide - Classical Civilisations
    This is the study guide for Chapters 3 - 6. 

    Crash Course: World History #2- Indus Valley Civilization
    In which John Green teaches you about the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the largest of the ancient civilizations. John teaches you the who, how, when, where and why of the Indus Valley Civilization, and dispenses advice on how to be more successful in your romantic relationships. 
    Crash Course: World History #3 - Mesopotamia
    In which John presents Mesopotamia, and the early civilizations that arose around the Fertile Crescent. Topics covered include the birth of territorial kingdoms, empires, Neo-Assyrian torture tactics, sacred marriages, ancient labor practices, the world's first law code, and the great failed romance of John's undergrad years. 
    Crash Course: World History #4 - Ancient Egypt 
    In which John covers the long, long history of ancient Egypt, including the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms, and even a couple of intermediate periods. Learn about mummies, pharaohs, pyramids and the Nile with John Green.  
    Crash Course: World History #5 - The Persians & Greeks
    In which John compares and contrasts Greek civilization and the Persian Empire. Of course we're glad that Greek civilization spawned modern western civilization, right? Maybe not. From Socrates and Plato to Darius and Xerxes, John explains two of the great powers of the ancient world, all WITHOUT the use of footage from 300.
    Crash Course: World History #7 - 2,000 Years of Chinese History
    In which John introduces you to quite a lot of Chinese history by discussing the complicated relationship between the Confucian scholars who wrote Chinese history and the emperors (and empress) who made it. Included is a brief introduction to all the dynasties in Chinese history and an introduction to Confucius and the Confucian emphasis on filial piety, the role the mandate of heaven played in organizing China, and how China became the first modern state.
    Crash Course: World History #8 - Alexander the Great and the Situation... the Great? 
    In which you are introduced to the life and accomplishments of Alexander the Great, his empire, his horse Bucephalus, the empires that came after him, and the idea of Greatness. Is greatness a question of accomplishment, of impact, or are people great because the rest of us decide they're great?
    Also discussed are Kim Kardashian and the Situation, gender bias in history, Catherine the Great's death (not via horse love), the ardent love other generals--from Pompey the Great to Napoleon--had for Alexander, a bit of Persian history.
    Crash Course: World History #9 - The Silk Road and Ancient Trade
    The Silk Road and Ancient Trade: In which John Green teaches you about the so-called Silk Road, a network of trade routes where goods such as ivory, silver, iron, wine, and yes, silk were exchanged across the ancient world, from China to the West. Along with all these consumer goods, things like disease and ideas made the trip as well. As is his custom, John ties the Silk Road to modern life, and the ways that we get our stuff today. 
    Crash Course: World History #10 - The Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or... Which Was It?
    In which John Green explores exactly when Rome went from being the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. Here's a hint: it had something to do with Julius Caesar, but maybe less than you think. Find out how Caesar came to rule the empire, what led to him getting stabbed 23 times on the floor of the senate, and what happened in the scramble for power after his assassination. John covers Rome's transition from city-state to dominant force in the Mediterranean in less than 12 minutes. Well, Rome's expansion took hundreds of years, he just explains it in under 12 minutes. The senate, the people, Rome, the caesarian section, the Julian calendar and our old friend Pompey all make appearances, but NOT the Caesar Salad, as Julius had nothing to do with it.
    Crash Course: World History #11 - Christianity from Judaism to the Constantine
    In which John Green teaches you the history of Christianity, from the beginnings of Judaism and the development of monotheism, right up to Paul and how Christianity stormed the Roman Empire in just a few hundred years. Along the way, John will cover Abram/Abraham, the Covenant, the Roman Occupation of Judea, and the birth, life, death and legacy of Jesus of Nazareth. 
    Important Links
    Teaching Chinese Archeology, Glossary, and Pronunciation Guide
    This site translates spoken Chinese into English.

    Plato, "The Allegory of the Cave"
    This site provides an explanation of Plato's famous story of the cave.

    Rome Reborn 1.0
    This site provides an incredibly detailed physical and digital reconstruction of Rome at the height of its empire.

    Gupta Empire
    This site provides an nice overview of the Gupta empire, with nice pictures of their money.

               Spread of Religions
               This site graphically traces the spread of religions around the globe. 

    Music of the Classical Civilizations

    Comparatively little ancient Greek music survives. Although the oldest examples date to the third century BCE, they are fragmentary. Most of the examples complete enough for performance were composed in the Graeco-Roman period by Mesomedes,the court musician for Hadrian (reigned 117-138 CE). He was born in Crete and a freedman of Hadrian; he composed lyrics and epigrams for Hadrian and the Antonines.

    You are listening to the "Hymn to the Muse" by Mesomedes