•    Regents Earth Science

                                           Curriculum 2021-2022

    Unit 1: Dimensions of the Earth


    A. Nature of the Earth’s Shape and Surface

    B. Evidence of the Earth’s Shape

    B1: Photographs taken from Space

    B2: Observations of the Altitude of Polaris

    B3: Gravitational Anomalies

    C. Determination of the Earth’s Shape: Terrestrial Example

    C1: Eratosthenes Method of determining circumference.

    D. Spheres of the Earth System

    D1: Lithosphere

    D2: Hydrosphere

    D3: Atmosphere

    E. Mapping the Surface Features of the Earth

    E1: Coordinate Systems

    E1.1: Latitude and Longitude

    E2: Field Maps

    E3: Topographical Maps

    E3.1: Map Symbols

    E3.2: Map Scale

    E3.3: Map Direction (orientation)

    E3.4: Map Profiles

    Unit II: The Earth in Space


    A. Observations of Celestial Objects

    A1: Apparent Daily Motion of All Celestial Objects

    A2: Geocentric vs. the Heliocentric Model

    A3: The Earth’s Motions

    A3.1 Rotation

    A3.2 Revolution

    A3.3 Precession

    B. The Sun’s Apparent Path

    B1: Changes in the Sun’s Path

    B1.1 Changes in the Seasons

    B2.2 Changes with Latitude

    C. Satellites in Orbit

    C1: Gravity

    C2: Orbital Motion

    C2.1 Elliptical

    C2.2 Circular

    C3: Orbital Motion in the Solar System

    C3.1 Aphelion and Perihelion

    C3.2 Eccentricity

    D. The Earth, Sun, And Moon Orbital System

    D1: The Moon

    D1.1 The Phases of the Moon

    D1.2 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon

    D1.3 Tides (Spring and Neap)

    E. The Earth in the Universe


    Unit 2 Extensions: Astronomy Extensions


    F. Evidence of the Heliocentric Model

    F1: The Foucault Pendulum

    F2: The Coriolis Effect

    G. Descriptions of the Solar System

    G1: Solar System Data (ESRT)

    G2: Electromagnetic Spectrum

    G3: The Inner Planets

    G4: The Outer Planets

    G5: Interplanetary Bodies

    G6: Origin of the Universe

    G6.1 The Big Bang Theory

    G6.2 The Expanding Universe


    Unit III: Meteorology


    A. Methods of Description of Weather

    A1: Air Temperature

    A2: Air Pressure

    A3: Air Humidity

    A3.1 Absolute Humidity

    A3.2 Relative Humidity

    A3.3 Dew Point

    A4.4 Sling Psychrometer

    A4: Air Movement

    A5: Air Quality

    B. Relationship of Atmospheric Variables

    B1: Air Pressure and Air Temperature

    B2: Air Pressure and Humidity

    B3: Air Temperature and Air Humidity

    C. Air Pressure and Wind

    C1: Land and See Breezes

    C2: Global Wind Belts

    C3: The Jet Stream

    D. Precipitation and Cloud Formation

    D1: Condensation

    D1.1 Condensation Nuclei

    D2: Cloud Base

    D3: Precipitation Conditions

    D3.1 Fog

    D3.2 Frost

    D3.3 Snow

    D3.4 Rain

    E. Weather Maps

    E1: Synoptic Weather Maps

    E1.1 Synoptic Forecasting

    E2: Field Maps

    E2.1 Isotherms

    E2.2 Isobars

    E2.3 Gradients

    E3: Station Models

    E4: Air Masses

    E4.1 Maritime Tropical

    E4.2 Maritime Polar

    E4.3 Continental Tropical

    E4.4 Continental Polar

    F. Weather Forecasting

    F1: Weather Fronts

    F1.1 Cold Front

    F2.2 Warm Front

    F3.3 Stationary Front

    F3.4 Occluded Front

    F2: Cyclones

    F3: Anticyclones

    F4: Thunderstorms

    F5: Tornadoes

    F6: Hurricanes


    Unit 3 Extensions: Atmospheric Energy Extensions


    G. The Storing of Energy in the Atmosphere

    G1: Electromagnetic Waves

    G2: Radiation Budget

    G3: Convection

    G4: Conduction

    G5: Insolation

    G5.1: Seasonal Changes of Insolation

    G5.2 Angle of Insolation

    G5.3 Daily and Annual Cycles (Duration)

    H. Radiative Balance

    H1: Color and Texture of the Surface

    H2: Specific Heat Capacity

    I. Phases Changes of Water

    I1: Latent Heat of Fusion

    I2: Latent Heat of Vaporization

    J. Adiabatic Changes

    K. The Greenhouse Effect

    K1: Infrared Wavelengths

    K2: Ultraviolet Wavelengths


    Unit IV: Minerals and Rocks


    A. The Materials of the Earth

    B. Characteristics used to identify Minerals.

    B1: Definition of minerals

    B2: Mineral Classification

    B2.2 Silicates

    B2.3 Carbonates

    B3.3 Oxides

    C. Mineral Characteristics

    C1: Color

    C2: Luster

    C3: Streak

    C4: Hardness

    C5: Cleavage

    C6: Fracture

    C7: Specific Gravity

    D. Mineral Identification Tests

    D1: Magnetism

    D2: Double refraction

    D3: Acid reaction

    D4: Powdered Flame Test

    D5: Piezoelectric/ Pyroelectric

    E. Minerals as Building Blocks of the Earth’s Crust

    F. The Three Main Classifications of Rocks

    G. Igneous Rock

    G1: Lava

    G2: Magma

    G3: Silica Content

    G4: Crystal formation series

    G4.1 Extrusive

    G4.2 Intrusive

    G5: Characteristics


    H. Sedimentary Rock

    H1: Sediments

    H2: Organic

    H3: Siliclastic

    H4: Evaporites

    H5: Lithification

    H6: Layering and Stratification

    H7: Fossils

    I. Metamorphic Rocks

    I1: Formation

    I1.1 Heat

    I1.2 Pressure

    I1.3 Chemical Activity

    I2: Characteristics

    I2.1 Changes in Crystalline Texture

    I2.2 Density Change

    I2.3 Foliation and Banding

    I2.4 Distortion of layers and Fossils

    I2.5 Changes in Chemical Composition

    I3: Classification

    J. The Rock Cycle


    Unit 4 Extensions: Natural Resources


    K. Conservation of Natural Resources

    K1: Strategic Minerals

    K2: Fossil Fuels

    K3: Water and Soil

    K4: Global Implications


    Unit V: Weathering, Erosion and Deposition


    A. Changing of the Earth’s Crust by Weathering

    B. Physical Weathering

    B1: Frost Action

    B2: Abrasion

    B3: Exfoliation

    B4: Plant and Animal

    B5: Temperature Changes

    C. Chemical Weathering

    C1: Oxidation

    C2: Hydration and Hydrolysis

    C3: Chemical Solution

    C4: Carbonation

    D. Weathering Rates

    D1: Climate

    D2: Particle Size / Surface Area

    D3: Mineral Composition

    E. Products of Weathering

    E1: Sediments

    E2: Soils

    F. Erosion Processes

    F1: Evidence of Erosion

    F2: Agents of Erosion

    F3: Mass Wasting

    F3.1 Rapid Mass Wasting

    F3.2 Slow Processes

    G. Rivers and Running Water

    G1: Runoff

    G2: Streams

    G2.1 Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition

    G2.2 Life Cycle

    H. Oceanic Erosion

    H1: Waves

    H2: Currents

    I. Wind Erosion

    J. Factors of Sediment Deposition

    J1: Speed of Transporter

    J2: Particle Size

    J3: Layering

    K. Development of Landforms by Sediment Deposition

    K1: Landforms by Gravity Deposition

    K1.1 Mudflows

    K1.2 Talus

    K1.3 Slump

    K1.4 Creep

    K2: Stream Deposition

    K2.1 Oxbow Lakes

    K2.2 Floodplains and Levees

    K2.3 Deltas and Alluvial Fans

    K3: Oceanic Deposition

    K3.1 Beaches

    K3.2 Sandbars, Barrier Islands and Lagoons

    K4: Deposition by Wind

    K4.1 Loess

    K4.2 Dunes



    Unit 5 Extension: Glacial Geology of New York


    L. Formation of Glaciers

    M. Movement of Ice

    N. Types of Glaciers

    N1: Valley Glaciers

    N2: Continental Glaciers

    O. Glacial Erosion

    O1: Abrasion

    O2: Plucking

    O3: Glacial Polish

    O4: Glacial Striations

    O5: Glacial Grooves

    O6: Drumlins

    O7: U-shaped valley/ Hanging valleys

    P. Glacial Deposition Features

    P1: Moraines

    P2: Kettles, Kames and Eskers

    P3: Glacial Lakes

    Q. Glacial Ice Ages

    Q1: Pleistocene in New York

    R. Glacial Resources

    R1: Aquifers

    R2: Sand and gravel


    Unit VI: The Dynamic Crust


    A. Importance of Earthquakes to Humans

    A1: The Crust

    A1.1 Lithosphere

    A1.2 Asthenosphere

    A2: The Mantle and its Composition

    A3: The Core

    B. Causes of Earthquakes

    C. Earthquake Waves

    C1: Wave Mechanics

    C1.1 S- Waves

    C1.2 P- Waves

    D. Measuring Earthquakes

    D1: Seismographs

    D2: Determining the Distance to an Earthquake Epicenter

    D3: Origin Time

    D4: Triangulation to Location

    E. Effects of Earthquakes

    F. Volcanoes

    F1: Magma Formation

    F2: Formation of Volcanoes

    G. Volcanic Structures

    H. Zones of Volcanic and Earthquake Activity

    I. Plate Tectonics

    I1: Plate Boundaries

    I1.1 Divergent

    I1.2 Convergent

    I1.3 Transform

    J. Evidence of Plate Tectonics

    J1: Continental Drift

    J1.1 Oceanic vs. Continental Crust

    J1.2 Geological Structures

    J1.3 Fossil Evidence

    J1.4 Climate Change

    J2: Ocean Floor Spreading

    J2.1 Mid-Ocean Ridges

    J2.2 Trenches

    J2.3 Ring of Fire

    J2.4 Paleomagnetism

    K. Cause and Effects of Plate Tectonics

    K1: Stress and Strain

    K2: Folds

    K3: Joints and Faulting


    Unit VII: Hydrogeology and Climate


    A. The Origin of Surface Water

    B. The Water Cycle

    C. Groundwater

    C1: Porosity

    C2: The Water Table

    C3: Aquifers and Wells

    C4: Artesian Wells

    D. Factors that Determine Climate

    D1: Latitude

    D2: Altitude

    D3: Water Proximity

    D4: Wind Belts

    D5: Oceanic Currents

    D6: Surface Relief



    Unit VIII: The Earth’s History


    A. Determination of the Order of Geological Events.

    B. Relative Dating of Rock Structures

    B1: Law of Superposition

    B2: Unconformities

    C. Correlation of Geological Events

    C1: Outcrop Identification

    C2: Physical Characteristics

    C3: Index Fossils

    C4: Marker Layers

    D. The Geological Time Scale

    D1: Important Geological Events in New York

    D2: Evidence of Past Life

    D3: Altered Environments

    E. Radioactive Dating