European Revolutions and Empires,
(1750 C.E. to 1914 C.E.

Europe from 1750 - 1914, the long nineteenth century, went through another period of internal growth and changes that dynamically altered the world once again. Politically, Europe experienced the birth of new states, the trauma of revolution, and the stress of empire. Economically, Europe widened its gap with the rest of the world by becoming the first region to fully industrialize, allowing to expand its colonial empires into previously resistant regions.


Study Guide - European Revolutions and Empires
This is the study guide for chapters 23 & 24.

Important Links

This site provides a simple description of Romanticism in all of its iterations.

This site provides a good discussion of the origins, parts, and outcomes of Romanticism.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Romanticism
This is a very thorough site that provides and excellent listing and linkage to Romantic primary sources.

Wikipedia - Nationalism
A simple definition of the term and links to nationalist events.

Wikipedia - Otto von Bismarck
The main builder of Germany.

Wikipedia - The German Empire
The rise of the German Empire radically changed the map of Europe.

Italian Unification
While Italy unified prior to Germany, its impact on the continent was not as dramatic.

Marxists Internet Archive
A collection of various Marxist writings and sites.

Italian Unification Video
This video was created by Tom Lenihan, a Social Studies Teacher in Yorktown, Virginia.  It runs for about 5 minutes.

Wikipedia-Victorian Age
This site provides a simple overview of the period.

The Victorian Web: An Overview
This site provides a good linkage to various topics of the Victorian age.

Music of the Age of Revolutions and Empires

During the middle and later years of the nineteenth-century, a style of"light" music became popular with the European middle classes. Byappealing to a less-refined, less-discriminating taste for melody,harmony and rhythm, many composers found their audiences in the musichalls or on the dance floors: the racy can-can and galop enlivened the parodistic opera-bouffes of Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880); the Victorian sentiment, melody, and satirical humor of the operas of Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900); and in Vienna, the dance music of the Strauss family. Known as "the Waltz King" for his hundreds of waltzes, Johann Strauss, Jr. Strauss also composed a number of frothy Viennese operettas, the best of which is Die Fledermaus. was a violinist and orchestra leader who also wrote a great number ofdances other than waltzes, such as polkas, galops, and quadrilles. Manyof Strauss’ melodies are instantaneously familiar the world over, suchas the Tales from Vienna Woods, which you are listening to below. [From the Internet Public Library]