The Development of Nationalism,
(1850 - 1870)
Following the outbreak and crushing of the French Revolution, nationalism developed throughout Europe and Latin America. In the process, reshaping the map of Europe, and setting the stage for World War One.
liberty, freedom, and self-determination were hot stuff in the late 18th
century, as evidenced by our recent revolutionary videos. Although
freedom was breaking out all over, many of the societies that were
touting these ideas relied on slave labor. Few places in the world
relied so heavily on slave labor as Saint-Domingue, France's most
profitable colony. Slaves made up nearly 90% of Saint-Domingue's
population, and in 1789 they couldn't help but hear about the revolution
underway in France. All the talk of liberty, equality, and fraternity
sounds pretty good to a person in bondage, and so the slaves rebelled.
This led to not one but two revolutions, and ended up with France, the
rebels, Britain, and Spain all fighting in the territory. Spoiler alert:
the slaves won. So how did the slaves of what would become Haiti throw
off the yoke of one of the world's great empires? John Green tells how
they did it, and what it has meant in Haiti and in the rest of the
In which John
Green talks about the many revolutions of Latin America in the 19th
century. At the beginning of the 1800s, Latin America was firmly under
the control of Spain and Portugal. The revolutionary zeal that had
recently created the United States and had taken off Louis XVI's head in
France arrived in South America, and a racially diverse group of people
who felt more South American than European took over. John covers the
soft revolution of Brazil, in which Prince Pedro boldly seized power
from his father, but promised to give it back if King João ever returned
to Brazil. He also covers the decidedly more violent revolutions in
Mexico, Venezuela, and Argentina. Watch the video to see Simón Bolívar's
dream of a United South America crushed, even as he manages to liberate
a bunch of countries and get two currencies and about a thousand
schools and parks named after him.
Important LinksWikipedia - Nationalism
This provides a simple overview of the concept.
Wikipedia - Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor Bismarck led the drive for German unification.
Wikipedia - The German Empire
The development of the German Empire radically changed Europe.
Italian unification, while earlier than Germany, was not as much of an earthquake than Germany's unification.
Marxists Internet Archive
This site compiles many different sources of Marxist thought.
Italian Unification Video
This video was created by Tom Lenihan, a Social Studies Teacher in Yorktown, Virginia. It runs for about 5 minutes.
Music of the Nationalist AgeDas Deutschlandlied ("The Song of Germany", also known as Das Lied der Deutschen, "The Song of the Germans") has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. Outside Germany it is sometimes known by the opening words and refrain of the first stanza, Deutschland über alles (Germany above all), but this has never been its title.